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Explore Properties.Sergio Ramos 87 FIFA 16 Concept – Career Mode Stats | Futhead
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Sergio Ramos FIFA 16 – 87 – Prices and Rating – Ultimate Team | Futhead
Sergio Ramos FIFA 16 – 88 – Rating and Price | FUTBIN
ASML, Canon and Nikon: who will get the order from AMD or the prospects for 157nm lithography
It looks like ASML, Canon and Nikon are fighting over an order from AMD for lithography equipment for a 300mm flash memory factory in Germany. According to David Bennett, director of strategic technologies and alliances at AMD, in the near future, the company will also have to make a decision whether to choose immersion technologies for it and then introduce them into mass production at 65nm standards, or to do with traditional “dry” equipment. Bennett hinted transparently that the introduction of immersion lithography could mean the closure of the 157nm lithography program and its exclusion from the company’s plans.
Until now, the main hardware vendors for AMD have been the Dutch ASML and the Japanese Canon. Most of the company’s equipment consists of 248nm and 193nm ASML scanners, which process most of the semiconductor wafers for AMD microprocessors. At the same time, flash memory production is carried out mainly on Canon equipment. The latter is also an equipment supplier for the AMD-Fujitsu joint venture, FASL.
Some observers have expressed the view that the decision will ultimately be made with the interests of another party – IBM, a partner of AMD. There is an agreement between IBM and AMD, according to which the companies will jointly develop technological details for the production of chips with 65 and 45 nm standards on 300 mm wafers, and IBM is leaning towards purchasing equipment from ASML. In any case, at the 90nm plant, IBM uses exactly its 193nm equipment. However, although Bennett acknowledged the need to fulfill the agreement with IBM, price will play a significant role in the decision: 193nm ASML scanners cost from $ 12 to $ 20 million., while Canon and Nikon sell their devices for between $ 8 and $ 15 million. For AMD, which came out of losses only in the last quarter of 2021 (albeit very effectively – exceeding expectations many times over), the price plays an important role, although it is noted that, in the framework of cooperation with ASML, the replacement of already installed scanners and steppers with new ones is not happening. too expensive. Nikon, which until now has not supplied AMD lithographic equipment, has made it to the list of possible suppliers due to its success in the field of immersion technology.
Meanwhile, despite the already achieved successes (reaching 35nm standards in RIT), the developers of immersion technologies are not going to stop there. Thus, MIT researchers report the need for further research on the possibility of replacing water with liquids with a high refractive index and offer their considerations, taken up by TSMC. Using immersion in water with a refractive index of 1.44 produces images from a source with an effective wavelength of 134 nm. To compete with 193nm scanners, 157nm optics must also be immersed in liquid with a refractive index of 1.5 or more. However, the water successfully used at 193 nm absorbs radiation at a wavelength of 157 nm too strongly, and the candidate perfluoropolyether PFPE has a refractive index of 1.38. At the same time, Sematech researchers say that adding phosphates to water can increase this figure to 1.6. Who knows, it is possible that 157-nm scanners will be recommended for the production of chips at rates less than 32-nm, because manufacturers would like to hope that the money in their development was not in vain. But – EUV is already looming on the horizon, which means that there is not much to hope for 157-nm lithography.